What materials for my future home?


What materials for my future home?

Bruno Warion

Concrete, cinderblock, wood ... From an aesthetic point of view, it is not always easy to decide on a material to build his future home. And when there is the question of its relationship to the stakes environmentalthe choice becomes more complex. Review of qualities and defects of the various building systems.

This is one of the advantages of RT 2012 on the previous one: once the building design takes into account bioclimatic data, everyone is free to choose the building material for their future home. And the experience gained in BBC shows that all are usable. Under this label, one finds indeed various achievements: houses in blocks, wood or steel frame, or monomur brick or concrete banché. With, however, in 2011, very uneven distributions. According to statistics, cinder block and traditional brick are almost equal, accounting for 87% of buildings, while cellular concrete, monomur brick, metal structures and wood frames are distributed the remaining 13%. Anyway, each material aligns its own advantages and disadvantagesand the weaknesses of some will be overcome by additional insulation or a more sophisticated choice in terms of equipment.

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Traditional hollow brick for my future home

Based on clay, brick has been used since ancient times in construction. It is a natural product and often a local resource. It is cheap and easy to implement.

Advantages : his price. The walls are "breathable" and offer a hygrometric regulation natural. Good thermal resistance. It can be recycled.

Disadvantages: need of reported insulation, low inertia, must be complemented by concrete elements (interior walls, screed, massive stairs ...). bad soundproofing.

First house labeled BBC Effinergie in Saône-et-Loire, this brick house alveolar is surmounted by a roof of tiles and flanked by a cubic wing with green roof. The house has many openings to the south, like any self-respecting bioclimatic, as well as a cap and sunshades to limit overheating in summer. To the north, buffer areas: storage, laundry, garage ... Heating is provided by a heat pump air / water feeding a low temperature ground on the ground floor. An accumulation fireplace is added ("Green System" Tulikivi). Ventilation requires a dual flow CMV associated with a Canadian well. Nothing is missing in this showcase of ecological solutions: neither the natural skylights ("Sun Tunnel" Velux) upstairs, nor the pergola on the south facade with deciduous plant to shade in the summer. 27 m2 of photovoltaic tiles (Imerys) were installed on the roof. Estimated annual production: 2,970 kWh.

Builder: Val de Saône Building.

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The breeze block to realize my house

Contrary to popular belief, concrete and the environment are not incompatible. Cheap and simple to implement, the cinderblock (or concrete block) remains the most used building material in France.

Advantages : his price. Its manufacture requires little energy. Its mechanical resistance (80 tons per linear meter), thermal and acoustic, but also fire and frost. A wide range of products. A correct thermal inertia.

Disadvantages: the main one: an essential need for reported insulation, from the inside or the outside because, used alone, its thermal performances are non-existent. Impervious to moisture, do not rely on it to regulate the hygrometry of the house. VMC is mandatory.

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Contemporary but classic looking, this house in breeze blocks offers state-of-the-art solutions to the current requirements of thermal comfort: large pocket openings south-west facing, air-to-water heat pump for underfloor heating (with gas fireplace to top up) and, to the south, a bioclimatic pergola with mobile blades (Biossun) controlled by an integrated weather station. A double flow VMC (Aldes) is enough to warm up the atmosphere during the half-seasons, a town gas chimney coming in support. All openings are obscured by roller shutters with adjustable blades (Baumann). In real thermal regulators, these shutters can be controlled (manually or automatically) to manage both the temperature and the brightness of the rooms.

Conception, realization: CG Development. Such. : 06 08 57 87 30.

A house made with monomur brick

It knows a growing success for its thermal qualities: the cells of its structure enclose the air and thus ensure a good part of the insulation, or even all the insulation, that one says then distributed. The walls and the insulation of the house are made in one operation.

Advantages : it does not require reported insulation in temperate regions. Its thermal inertia, in winter, the walls accumulate heat from solar radiation or heating and restore it for 12 hours at night, in summer, the phenomenon reverses with preservation of the inner freshness.

Disadvantages: extra cost of implementationabout 5%, and difficulty finding good professionals. Its manufacture requires a significant energy expenditure, since it is necessary to cook the bricks at high temperature.

A connoisseur of the secrets of the sustainable environment, the owner of this house made of bricks monomur already taught this subject more than twenty years ago. His house exceeds the performance of a simple BBC; it is the result of a HQE (high environmental quality) approach. All the materials used have an FDES (environmental and sanitary declaration form) and come from Europe to favor short circuits. The house is heated by the ground on both levels, the network is powered by a heat pump. A thermodynamic balloon coupled with a VMC double flow (Aldes) ensures the production of domestic hot water and ventilation. On the roof, photovoltaic panels produce 2 kW per year. Energy balance: 18 kWh / m2 / year.

DPLG Architect: Aude Bruguière.

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Wood to build house

It still accounts for only 6-7% of the construction sector, but is also very popular. It is found in the form of framework, assembly of planks, posts-beams, or in mixed version (wood / masonry).

Advantages : Renewable, recyclable, wood allows a great freedom of shapes and volumes. Dry sites, clean and low nuisance. Fast implementation.

Disadvantages: An insulation must be associated with it. Extra cost of 5 to 20% compared to a masonry construction. Very low inertia. Must be complemented by concrete elements (interior walls, screed, massive stairs ...)

This house is made of large solid wood panels (pine panels KLH). The external insulation, hidden by a cladding, acts as a coat protecting the structure of temperature variations. The walls are 102 mm thick, to which must be added the insulating wood fiber (120 mm) and the final cladding. The slightly sloping roof is covered with a thermoplastic waterproofing membrane (Sarnafil), a process generally used for green roofs. For the interior, the use of Fermacell sheets guarantees good air quality and, thanks to solid wood, the hygrometry rate remains constant. Heating and hot water production are provided by an air / water heat pump (Daikin) and a heated floor. A wood stove (Max Blank) provides extra.

Architect / prime contractor: Groupe EAU-Guy Schneider / Biovilla.

A metal structure for my house

Like the wood frame, the metallic structure offers a great freedom of creation on the architectural level. However limited by the requirements of the bioclimatic construction: no question of multiplying the surfaces déperditives (cold walls), those that are in contact with the outside of the habitat.

Advantages : economic (10 to 20% less than a masonry house). Short and clean yard. Transport and assembly without exceptional means. Light building. Anti-seismic quality.

Disadvantages: insulation from the outside (more expensive) is recommended to prevent overheating of the house, but requires additional fire protection (thermal bridges at the angles). Phenomenon "Faraday cage" that can reduce the range of wireless networks (cell phones, Wi-Fi, etc.).

This contemporary house built in blocks with a metal structure is cool in summer, warm and bright in winter. It offers exemplary thermal comfort (heating, ventilation and cooling) as well as efficient home automation. It is oriented southeast. On the ground floor, the living room occupies the entire extension with a fully glazed facade opening onto a terrace protected by a large pergola. On the north-west side, the openings are rare but participate in natural air conditioning when, half-open during the heat wave, they facilitate the circulation of air in a region where the problem is rarely heating. Cumulative effect of the high cap, the pergola and moving air refreshed by the pool, it is never more than 24-25 ° C in the living room.

Architect: CoO Architects.

Cellular concrete (Thermopierre)

It's a light material, a mixture of cement, lime, sand and water, to which is added aluminum powder which gives it "airy" properties. The air, imprisoned in the form of small bubbles, brings to the cellular concrete its insulation qualities.

Advantages : lightness is, without doubt, its main asset. Good coefficient of thermal conductivity, which minimizes the impact of temperature differences between the outside and the inside, and to spend most of the time of additional insulation.

Disadvantages: less resistance to wear. Delicate implementation. The price.

Realized in blocks of cellular concrete, the "Villa Concept" displays excellent thermal performance: it was one of the first positive energy houses built in France. Its orientation, its solar protections (blinds, directional blinds ...), the importance of glazed surfaces on the south facade and the simplicity of its form obey the rules of a bioclimatic architecture. By combining cellular concrete with external thermal insulation, the results can be optimized in regions with a harsher climate, which makes it easy to meet the BBC requirements (RT 2012), or even passive.

Architect: Jacques Patingre. Builder: Villas La Provençale.