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All about thermal insulation

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A well insulated living room to fully enjoy

Getty Images / iStockphoto

The best way to gain thermal comfort, and therefore reduce its energy bill, is to review the isolation of its habitat. Outside or inside insulation? Insulation of attics, walls, floor, windows change ... Two experts take stock for House side on the various possible work in renovation.

You want to gain in thermal comfort and / or optimize your energy consumption ? Before changing your boiler or your windows, know that no investment will be more profitable than the thermal insulation of the house. "Just because the cheapest energy is obviously the one you do not consumesays Olivier Huraux, national market leader CMI promoter at Knauf. Many individuals just change their windows because it's easier, but that's not enough in most cases. "

First step before starting any construction site, thethermal evaluation of the habitat which will be decisive and point the priority posts. "This thermal assessment is crucial," says Olivier Rousseau, renovation manager for the ENGIE person, who will come to your home to see the reality of your home and take all the readings to establish a precise diagnosis, with costing of the work and possible helpers. "Following this diagnosis and the recommendations of the experts, you can decide which jobs you choose to perform in one go or spread out over several years, but be careful not to do things in half, warns Olivier Huraux: "The goal is to gain in thermal comfort but also acoustic, with the key a return on investment more or less fast. The importance of some budgets will cool more than one, but if you do not process several items, the thermal gains will not be maximum.

Thane Façade panels allow outdoor insulation in new or renovated homes, with different finishes: wall facing with or without air gap, ventilated cladding attached to a wooden or metal frame, cement slab Aquapanel® Outdoor fixed on a frame and plaster support. Price on estimate. Knauf.

Knauf

External Thermal Insulation (ITE), a high-end solution

TheThermal insulation of the walls from the outside consists of placing insulation on your exterior walls and covering it with a finishing coat. "No more thermal bridges responsible for heat loss," says Olivier Huraux, "it is a very efficient solution that allows optimal results and preserves the inertia of the walls, especially if you opt for an expanded polystyrene insulation for a good quality ratio. But it requires the intervention of trained professionals to implement certified systems and results in a higher cost. " We must indeed count on average 90 to 100 euros / m2 for insulation in PSE White of 140 mm R = 3.70 allowing the Tax credit (uncomplicated worksite with easy access). The advantage? In addition to an excellent result and a renovated facade, you can continue to to live in the house during the work.

But this type of insulation is not suitable in all cases: "If you live in a beautiful stone house, insulation from the outside is not recommended, Olivier Rousseaux alert. It is imperative to affix a coating, you can put back a cladding made of wood, PVC or plaster but not stone.The house will therefore lose its original character.It is the expert, who after his thermal evaluation, will know to orient you towards the ITE or the ITI according to your habitat and its constraints. advise the right insulators mineral (rockwool, glass wool), vegetable (hemp) or synthetic (expanded polystyrene or polyurethane) insulation. "Remember to check with your craftsman that the insulation chosen has an ACERMI certificate (Association pour la CERTIFICATION OF INSULATING MATERIALS) in order to benefit from state aid but also from an FDES (Environmental and Sanitary Declaration Form) in order to measure its environmental impact.

Read also> How to fight against drafts?

The insulation of the attic is one of the priorities: in fact, the roof represents about 30% of the energy losses. Knauf insulation.

Knauf

Inner Thermal Insulation (ITI): roofing first

Another solution, the Inner Thermal Insulation (ITI) which consists of insulate the attic, the walls, the floor… Its advantages ? A lower cost than the ITE, for a globally satisfactory result. "On the other hand, there are two main disadvantages to the interior insulation of the walls and floors," says Olivier Huraux, "is that the construction site takes place in an occupied environment with all the constraints that this implies and that the new insulation will reduce the living space. Note that polyurethane remains the best choice to combine performance and bulk. "

First priority post, the insulation of the attic : it is indeed by the roof that a poorly insulated house will generate 30% of its energy losses. Pretty easy to do, attic insulation is the one that will generate the most energy savingsfor a low cost, resulting in a quick return on investment. "If your roof spaces are not suitable because of insufficient ceiling height or too bulky framing, we will come to blow flakes of insulation, glass wool for example, homogeneously in the attic, resumes Olivier Rousseau.blow insulation is very effective because it makes it possible to overcome all the thermal bridges linked to the junction wall / framework. "If your roof spaces are suitable for conversion or done up, one will proceed rather to an isolation of the crawlers: a insulating roll or in plate will be directly attached to the frame inside the roof. In both cases, different insulators are possible but glass wool is the most used insulation, especially because of its good value for money.

count between 25 and 30 euros / m2 in the attic insulation by blowing, and between 50 and 70 euros / m2 on rampant (normalized prices for simple situations). Given its cost and the various possible aids, this insulation can be profitable in 5 or 6 years.

To read too> 8 questions to ask before rebuilding a roof

insulation of the walls from the outside with fiberglass

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Wall insulation: against the cold, the heat and also the noise

By insulating the walls of the house, you will come to the end of about 16% of heat losses. With a choice of two interior wall insulation techniques, both of which reduce the living space. With the bulkhead insulation under metal frame (the most common), an insulating material will be placed under a metal frame continuously over the entire wall. In case of bonded doubling insulation, the chosen insulation (polystyrene or polyurethane) will be glued to a plasterboard. Expanded polystyrene and mineral wool are the most used materials for wall insulation. With real comfort to the key.

"Good wall insulation not only protects you from the cold, but also from the heatadds Olivier Huraux, it's very important if your house is facing south. We will also improve acoustic comfort, most of the insulators also protect against noise. "Be careful nevertheless at the end of the construction site, to check that your VMC is performing:" We know less but it is crucial, recognizes Olivier Rousseau. The more the house is well insulated, the more the exchange of natural air will be reduced, keeping inside the house, stale air. It is essential provide a suitable VMC, if it is not already the case ".

Count around 85 euros / m2 on average for interior wall insulation.

Read also> 10 smart tips to isolate yourself from the noise

No good insulation without reinforced insulation windows. Windows Optiméa PVC which offer a good thermal insulation (Uw = 1,2) and acoustic, AC1 (RA; tr = 28 Db). Full-body tinted in anthracite gray, PVC is covered with a smooth veneer of the same hue to provide a perfect aesthetic. Proposed in tailor-made only, they are equipped with an opening 75 mm with 5 thermal insulation chambers, double glazing 24 mm Energy Star treated low emissivity with argon gas and spacer high thermal insulation (Ug = 1,1) as well as a double seal of thermal and acoustic insulation. 20 years warranty - NF certified. Eligible for the tax credit. Available in 150 lacquered colors, 12 plax colors and 3 preferential colors (Ivory, Anthracite Gray and Golden Oak). Dimensions: Windows 2 leaves white finish RAL 9016: H. 75 x L. 110 cm (excluding options) from 276 euros.

Lapeyre

Change its opening, easy hunting to energy losses

Insulating or in poor condition, windows and doors are responsible for 13% of energy losses of the House. By installing double-glazed windows, you will significantly increase thermal comfort and make a lasting impact on your energy bill at a low cost. "It will nevertheless be necessary to choose its windows, advance Olivier Rousseau and ask them by a building specialist.For double glazing, it is advisable to choose at least openings composed of 4 mm of glass, 16 mm of argon and Another 4 mm of glass, and it's useless to opt for triple glazing that will only bring real value in really cold regions. " If the window frame is in poor condition, you will need to change the opening and the frame. The frame / glazing unit must in this case perfectly meet the standards in force. Indeed, if the chassis is less insulating than the glazing, the solution will lose efficiency.

Second possibility: the frame of the window is in good condition, which simplifies the renovation, the new window can then be clipped on the old frame. For good thermal performance, in both cases, pay attention to finishes and in particular the tightness of joinery (joints).

Count around 1100 euros per opening standard if you change the frame and the opening, approximately 900 euros for the simple change of window.

Read also> Which windows to choose for my house?

During soil insulation work, a floating dry screed may be incorporated to provide a level surface for receiving various types of floor coverings. Brio drywall composed of homogeneous elements in reinforced plaster, whose milled edges form a rabbet. Can also be delivered with a factory-laminated wood fiber insulation underlayment 10 mm thick (Brio 18 WF). Dry screed starting at 19.39 euros per m2. Knauf.

Knauf

Soil insulation, more or less simple depending on the configuration

Finally, poorly insulated floors can generate 7 to 10% of energy losses. But the more or less easy implementation of the soil insulation greatly depends on the configuration of your home, according to Olivier Huraux: "If your home includes a cellar or an unheated basement, this insulation is quite simple to achieve We are going to isolate (the ceiling of the cellar) by mechanically fixing a Insulation reported on the underside of the slab (panels made of wood wool glued on polystyrene or rock wool). "If you do not have a cellar, you will have to isolate from above, which involves important work, starting with remove the existing flooring before laying insulation (polyurethane, polystyrene, etc.) in a strip or plate and then remaking a concrete screed (thickness 5 cm) and laying the new floor covering.

To note : the thickness of the insulation can reach 10 cm and problem with the doors. The solution ? There are drywall systems with a thickness of 18 mm laid directly on the insulator which allow to minimize the thickness and to reduce the duration of the works (dry chain thus gaining the drying time of the screed).

It is difficult to give a price range, as they depend on different configurations and providers.

A well insulated living room to fully enjoy

Getty Images / iStockphoto

What helps for all these works?

Since 2014, you can benefit from CITE (Energy Transition Tax Credit) to support part of your energy renovation work. This tax credit will be 30% of expenses (material and installation), provided that the equipment used meets established performance criteria, that your work is carried out by a qualified professional RGE (Recognized Guarantor of the Environment) and in a principal residence (house or apartment) completed for more than two years. You are not subject to any means test for qualifying for ISCED, but the eligible expenses are however limited by ceilings: for a single, divorced or widowed person, the work budget taken into account amounts to 8,000 euros. For a married or pacsé couple, the ceiling of the expenses taken into account increases to 16,000 euros. Beyond these amounts, ISCED no longer applies. Finally, it is important to point out that this amount allocated to the work is valid for five slippery years. If you have already started other work or bought a woodstove, for example, and you benefit from this ISCED, you will have to wait 5 years before you can claim it again.

In addition to CITE, you can benefit from other helps to reduce the bill, with energy bonuses, eco-loans at zero rates or aid from Anah (National Agency for Housing). "The isolation is not reserved for the CSP +," concludes Olivier Rousseau, thanks to some of these aids, especially Anah, precarious customers can finance up to 80% of their quote."

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